International Equine Disease Collection Center 2021 3Q Report – Business Solutions for Equine Practitioners

The International Federation of Thoroughbred Breeders, International Collating Centre, Newmarket, UK, and other sources have reported the following equine disease events in Q3 2021.

  • African horse sickness has been reported as endemic in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). One case has been confirmed in Gauteng Province.
  • Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States have recorded equine influenza. The number of outbreaks ranged from one (Canada), three (UK) to one or more outbreaks in 23 states in the United States, where the disease is endemic.
  • Strangles outbreaks have been reported by Belgium (one), France (22), Germany and the Netherlands (two each), Switzerland (five) and the United States (25), where the disease has been diagnosed in eight states and is considered endemic.
  • Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) respiratory disease is endemic in most countries. Infection has been confirmed by Germany (two outbreaks), RSA (nine cases involving outbreaks in three facilities) and the United States (one outbreak).
  • Outbreaks of EHV-1 abortion have been reported from Germany (one) and the United States (two), all represented by individual cases.
  • Cases of EHV-1 neurological disease have been confirmed from Argentina (four in one facility), Canada (one), Germany (two outbreaks, one involving five cases), RSA (one of nosocomial infection ) and the United States (six outbreaks, one involving several animals having attended a show and the rest by individual cases).
  • Equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4) respiratory disease has been recorded by France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, RSA and Switzerland. The number of outbreaks varied from one (Italy, RSA), two (Germany, Netherlands and Switzerland) to four (France). The majority of outbreaks involved a single case.
  • The United States has reported cases of infection with equine herpesviruses 2 and 5 (EHV-2/EHV-5). EHV-2 (18) and EHV-5 (25) infections have been diagnosed in five states, some associated with respiratory disease.
  • Equine arteritis virus infection has been recorded in France. A 3-year-old colt and a stallion were involved.
  • The United States has diagnosed 11 isolated cases of Rhodococcus equi-associated respiratory disease.
  • Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has been confirmed by Canada, Italy and the United States. The number of outbreaks varied from three (Canada), six (United States) to eight (Italy). The majority of outbreaks consisted of isolated cases. Outbreaks in the United States have involved American Quarter Horses in Texas and feral horses in Utah.
  • Equine piroplasmosis has been reported from Japan (single clinical case of Theileria equi infection at the Tokyo Olympics) and RSA. The disease is considered endemic in RSA, with a total of 38 confirmed cases across five facilities, 26 of which have been recorded in Gauteng province.
  • Several outbreaks of contagious equine metritis (CEM) were recorded by Germany, three had two cases each, and the other 10 had a single case. Six of the outbreaks involved stallions and seven involved mares.
  • The United States reported one case of equine coital exanthema (equine herpesvirus type 3) and isolated cases of leptospiral abortion and renal failure in Kentucky.
  • The United States has also diagnosed 20 cases of Salmonella infection involving serogroup B and five cases of untyped infection Salmonella spp.
  • Clostridium enterocolitis associated with Clostridium perfringens has been reported by Switzerland (one case). The United States has recorded 11 cases of C.perfringens and three cases of Clostridiodes difficultthe majority in Kentucky.
  • The United States has confirmed nine outbreaks of Neorickettsia risticii infection involving four states.
  • Rotavirus diarrhea in foals has been reported from France (six outbreaks, mostly single cases) and the United States (two cases of rotavirus type A infection).
  • A case of equine rabies has been confirmed in Montana, USA. It marked the 12and animal rabies cases in the state in 2021.
  • Both Canada and the United States have recorded cases of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE). Five outbreaks have been diagnosed in Canada and 28 in the United States. With two exceptions, the outbreaks consisted of isolated cases. The majority of cases were in unvaccinated horses.
  • Outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis have been reported by Canada (three), Germany (seven), Italy (two, including one involving lineage 2 virus), Portugal ( three), Spain (six), the United Arab Emirates (one), and the United States (58 cases in 15 states).
  • Equine encephalosis is considered endemic in the RSA, and two cases have been confirmed in the Western Cape Province.
  • Three cases of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis have been diagnosed in Kentucky, USA.
  • Kazakhstan, Spain and the United States have reported cases of anthrax. The disease affected horses, cattle and sheep on a farm in Kazakhstan. Of 115 horses, 10 developed disease and nine died. Three cases have been confirmed in Spain and one in Texas; the latter represented the third case in Texas in 2021.
  • Switzerland has diagnosed three outbreaks of intercurrent anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in separate cantons.

This report was first published in January 2022 Equine Disease Quarterly Review from the Gluck Equine Research Center at the University of Kentucky.

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